Frank's links I Orchid links I Dutch nature links I Polish nature links

Below you will find my preferred sites on orchids.
Nearly all present more than just af few pictures,
some present detailed distribution data,
orchid books
or thousands of links.

Most link to native European orchids,
few to growing them.

These links are devided into country sections and into other categories.
A quick way to find what you look for is to use Ctrl+F4.
Use right mouse button to open in new window!

!!! = Top selection = Especially recommended sites = !!!


Europe - general

>>  Secretariat for the Conservation of European Orchids   by SCEO   (English)
Plain website of the SCEO
>>  National working groups on European Orchids   by SCEO   (English)
>>  German working groups on European Orchids   by SCEO   (English)

>>  Iconographie des Orchidées d'Europe    by P. Pernot   (French)
Over 800 quality images of over 250 European taxons from 17 authors (including the author of this site…).
>>  !!! Orchids of Europe   by H. Zelesny & B. Wossner   (English, German, French)
Quite certainly the best orchid hybrid site, with over 150 hybrids of all kind of European orchids. Furthermore general information about hybrids and wrong colours of orchid flowers.
>>  !!! Günthers's Homepage - European Orchids and Hybrids   by G. Blaich   (English, German)
Over 100 natural hybrids, including photographs of both parents. High quality images, recommended! Furthermore infos about orchid pollination and orchids on Sicilia, Crete, Sardinia and Cyprus.

>>  !!! Ophrys   by J. Mast de Maeght   (English, French)
In depth analysis of the genus Ophrys in Europe, one of most debated groups of European orchids and
the largest group in number of species. The site features over 700 photographs of 170 different Ophrys species.
>>  !!! Orchids in Europe including North Africa and Middle East  by S. Birkedal  (English)
Photos and lists of orchid species of all countries and groups of countries in Europe, based on P. Delforge's Orchids of Brittain & Europe - second edition of 2003 (slightly slow due to use of special applet).
Orchids of Europe Checklists   (English)
Interactive map of Europe. Click a country to see a list of the orchids present there. Disadvantage: outdated site, so for example new Ophrys species will lack.


>>  Lavanter Forchach - Orchideen   by H. Deutsch   (German)
Short article about 16 orchid species that are found in a valley in Eastern Tirol, Austria. Lovely images!


>>  La Section d'Orchidées d'Europe des Naturalistes Belges   by P. Delforge   (French)
Information about the Belgian native orchid society, a list of orchids in Wallonia, the southern half of Belgium, and analysis of 11 rare orchids from Belgium.

>>  Cartes provisoires de distribution des plantes en Belgique   by M. Dufrene   (French)
Clear distribution maps of all Belgian plants, including orchids. Very simple to use: type in the name of a Belgian orchid to see distribution up to 1972 (includes very old records).
>>  Natuurpunt Antwerpen Noord - Ekers Moeras   by E. de Beuckelaar   (Dutch)
Orchids in the projected reserve Ekers Moeras, north of city of Antwerp.
>>  Natuurpunt Antwerpen Noord - Oude Landen   by E. de Beuckelaar   (Dutch)
Orchids in the reserve Oude Landen, north of city of Antwerp.


>>  Orchids   by E. Ludvigsen   (English)
Research of orchid populations on a site near Copenhagen, capital of Denmark. List with various old drawn plates with orchids from Flora Danica.
>>  The orchids and wild flowers of Moen   by K. Hansen   (English)
Amateuristic but nice site with 5 images of orchids found on the island Moen (Southeast Denmark).


!!! Estonian orchids   (English, Estonian, partially in Finish, German, Swedish)
All 36 orchids from Estonia, with many photographs, description of species, distribution maps and protective status.

>>  Orchidaceae   by T. Kukk   (Estonian)
List of native orchids in Estonia


!!! Finish orchids   by M. Niisala   (English, Finish)
All 37 orchids from Finland, including description, photographs and distribution maps.


!!! Societé Francaise d'Orchidophilie   (French)
The French orchid association, which focuses both on the French and European native orchids as well as orchids outside of Europe and growth of orchids. Many links.

>>  Images de la Flore de France   by E. Bourneuf   (French)
Database of images, among which very neat ones of various orchids, especially Orchis and Ophrys.
>>  Orchidées sauvages de France - special lusus   by V. Lecomte   (French)
nformation and images of monstrosities of orchids in France, including Aceras, Dactylorhiza, Epipactis, Listera, Orchis and Ophrys.
>>  Orchidées sauvages de France & d'Europe   by T. Tarbault   (French)
Collection of quality images of orchids spotted in France, mainly Northeast and Mediterranean France (site under construction).
>>  !!! Les Orchidees de Provence   by P.M. Blais   (English, French)
My favorite orchid site, because of the links section, with over 8,000 orchid related links around the world in categories. Detailed introduction to orchids, many quality images and distribution maps of the orchids of Var (French department). This website is maintained regularly.
>>  Botanica   by B. Bock   (French)
Database with all protected plants in each French region, including the orchid species.
>>  !!! Criocere Serveur Orchidées   by J. Watkin   (French)
Beautiful images of all orchid species from department Nord-Pas de Calais (Western France) and interesting subjects like pollination, unusual flowers and plants, natural threaths etcetera.
>>  Orchidées de Haute Normandie   by M. Démares   (French)
Beautiful designed site on the orchids of Northern Normandy, in the north-west of France, with small, quality images and distribution maps of all 43 species. Info about the S.F.O. of Normandie.
>>  Page Orchidées (Normandie)   by P. Burnel   (French)
Presents a list of all 45 orchids found in Normandy, in the north-west of France, images of 43 of them and of hybrids and extinct species from this region. Interesting story about Ophrys tenthredinifera a 'new'species for the Var, spotted spring 2000.
>>  Les Orchidées du Pays de Caux   by Université Le Havre   (French)
List of 39 orchids in this region near Le Havre (Western France), with descriptions and images of 28 of them.
>>  Orchidées du Poitou-Charentes-Vendée  by O. et E. Marchand  (French)
List of species for four departements: Deux Sèvres, Charente, Charente Maritime, Vienne.
Orchidées sauvages en Vendee   by G. Oziel   (French)
List of orchids present in this part of Western-France and 8 beautiful photographs.

>>  Orchidées de l'Est de la Vienne   by Y. Platon   (French)
Short article about the orchids in a part of Brenne, departement Indre, central France. Includes a list with 19 species and a few images.
>>  Orchidées de Haute Garonne   by G. Joseph   (French)
Native orchids in the department Haute-Garonne, North of Pyrenees, in the Southeast of France, with images and complete list of all 59 species including their rareness.
>>  Orchidées de l'Ariège   (French)
Short basic info about the 60 orchids of Ariège, a central department of the Pyrenees mountain range.
>>  Orchidées sauvages en Quercy   by V. Lecomte   (French)
Orchids in Quercy, Southwest of France, includes departments Lot, Tarn-et-Garonne and Lot et Garonne.
>>  Orchidees du Tarn-et-Garonne   by G. & L. Pessoto   (French)
Beautiful site with images and information about the orchids found the department Tarn-et-Garonne, Southern France, especially in the surroundings of the village Saint Antonin.
>>  Les Orchidees de l'Herault   by   M. Nicole & J.P. Hervy   (French)
Images and distribution maps of most species in this Mediterranean Southern French department.
>>  Orchidées à Restinclières  by P. Thomas French
Photographs of 12 orchid species found on a private estate near Montpellier, department of Herault (South of France).
>>  Orchidées à Restinclières  by A.C.M.O.  (French)
Orchids of the island of Corsica, with amongst others a galerie (site outdated).
>>  Orchidées autour du Pic Saint-Loup   by J. de Vos   (French)
Orchids photographs from the current season (spring 2001!), around Pic Sain-Loup, dep. Alpes Maritimes in the extreme Southeast of France.
>>  Les Orchidées de Franche Comté   by J. Moingeon   (French)
Images of orchid species in the departements. Hte-Saône, Jura and Doubs (East of France)
>>  Orchidées des Hautes-Alpes   by O. Tourillon   (French)
Complete list and images of most orchids found in the dept. Hautes-Alpes, in the South-East of France. Distribution maps and recommended walking-routes to see orchids in this dept.
>>  Orchids of France & Europe   by P. Pernot   (English, French)
Slideshow of orchids seen on Corse and Sardinia.
>>  Les Orchidées de France et de Belgique   by A. Schellinck   (French)
Collection of images of various Belgian and French orchids.
>>  Photo d'Orchidées by P. Thomas  (French)
Collection of photographs of 45 orchid species occuring in France


>>  !!! Arbeitskreis Heimische Orchideen (AHO)   (German)
Images, links, books, some book reviews and other information concerning German orchids of the official German wild orchid association.
>>  Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz   by O.W. Thomé   (English)
All 572 plates from this flora, includes the orchids from Germany, Austria and Switzerland known at that time. Beautiful plates, drawn between 1885 and 1905! The orchids are on plates 143 - 160 of band I.
>>  !!! AHO Bayern   (German)
Website of the AHO of Bayern, with images of 16 orchids from Bayern and usefull descriptions (especially the comparision of Orchis mascula and Orchis mascula ssp. signifera, and Nigritella austriaca and Nigritella rhellicani). Book review about the hybrids of Nigritella and Leucorchis.
>>  AHO Baden-Wurttemberg   (German)
Website of the A.H.O. of Baden-Württemberg with information about the A.H.O. and 17 quality images in a gallery.
!!! Die Orchideen der Rhön   by M. Klüber   (German)
Description and photographs of 46 orchids found in Rhön-area, their habitats, landscapes and climate of Rhön-area, basics about European orchids etc.

>>  Der Nationalpark Jasmund   by O. Teschke   (German)
Interesting information about the 26 orchid species on the island Rugen where the National Park Jasmund is situated, Northeastern Germany.
>>  Orchideen in der Gemeinde Blankenheim   by A. & H. Baum   (German)
Interesting website with valuable information about the orchids in the community Blankenheim, Rheinland-Pfalz.
>>  Orchideen zwischen Kaiserstuhl und Vogesen   by S. Jelinek   (German)
9 images of orchids found near Kaiserstuhl (state of Baden-Württemberg)
>>  Natur um Jena   by V. Strehl   (German)
5 low quality images of orchids found around Jena (Thuringen), Germany.
>>  Pflanzen in Baden-Wurttemberg   by K. Harms et al   (German)
List of all endangered plants in Baden-Wurttemberg, including native orchids.


>>  Bemerkungen zur Orchideenflora auf Samos   by A. Hennern   (German)
Report of a visit to the island Samos, with findspots. Two images of Limodorum abortivum with white flowers!
>>  Orkidétur til Kreta   by P. Theglev   (Danish)
Report in Danish from a visit to the Greek island Crete in April 1998 (14 orchids listed).


>>  !!! Orchids of Italy   by B. Barsella   (English)
A huge collection of images and many links.
>>  !!! Orchidee Spontanee dell 'Astigiano   by G. Baiano, R. Amerio & F. Gagliasso   (Italian)
Discription of the orchid-family, identification key, glossary and complete documentation of all 38 species and vars found in Astigiano region (east of Torino).
Le Orchidee del lago di Garda   by P. Bussola   (Italian)
Orchids found around the Garda Lake, Northern Italy.
Orchidee Spontanee del Centro Italia   by C. Mazzuoli   (Italian)
Photographs of the orchids found in Central Italy.

Orchidee del Cilento by R. Bocchino Italian
Orchids found in the National Parc Cilento e Vallo di Diano, illustrated by a great number of colourfull photographs.

>>  !!! Orchidee del Gargano  by A. Rossini & G. Quitadamo  (Italian, partially in English)
List and photo of all orchids of the Gargano-mountain range - famous accross Europe for its abundance in orchid species and info about the book by the authors of the site.
Orchidee del Gargano   (Italian, partially in English)
Basic information and a list of 75 orchid species found on the Gargano Mountains, one of Europe's most rich regions in native orchids.

>>  Wild Orchids of Sicily   by L. Triolo   (English)
List and description of Sicilian orchids, literature and 9 excellent images.
Orchidee della Sicilia Occidentale   by E. Caracci   (Italian)
Introduction and images of orchids in Western-Sicilia.

Günthers's Homepage - The fusca-lutea complex of Sicily   by G. Blaich   (English, German)
Quality photographs of 17 species and varieties of Ophrys fusca and Ophrys lutea on Sicily.

GIROS sezione Sardegna - Orchidee spontanee in Sardegna   by G. Orrè   (Italian)
Section of Sardinia of the Italian native orchid society GIROS. Description and photographs of about 50 Sardinian orchids and excursions for 2003.

>>  Le Orchidee spontanee della Sardegna   by G. Plazotto   (Italian)
Some information with a few images of orchids found on the island Sardinia, where over 60 species are found.
Orchidee dei monti occidentali del Vallo di Diano   by B. & T. Pisapia   (Italian)
Many below average quality images of orchids in this locality.
Orchidaceae dei M.ti Picentini   by B. Pisapia   (Italian)
45 below average quality images of orchids in Picentini mountains.


>>  Pflanzen unserer Naturschutzreservate   by Haus von der Natur   (German)
Nice website with 11 images and distribution maps of Luxembourgian orchids.

The Netherlands

>>  The Dutch Orchids   by C. Kreutz  (Dutch)
Beautiful photographs and a description of 48 species and subspecies of orchids found in the Netherlands (of which some are extinct). Click "The Dutch Orchids".
>>  Inheemse orchideeën van Nederland en Europa   by E. Van Wijngaerden   (Dutch)
Features a collection of images of 36 orchid species growing in the Netherlands.
>>  Werkgroep Europese Orchideeën   by KNNV   (Dutch, partially in English, German)
This group studies native European orchids, with information in Dutch about orchids, about the study group, a list of literature on European orchids and a forum.
>>  Bedreigde flora in Nederland   by B. Blok   (Dutch)
Threathened flora in the Netherlands; this website gives an overview of rare plants in Dutch nature reserves and shows a number of the rarest orchids of the Netherlands.


>>  Norwegian Orchid Society   by V. Vetlesen et al   (English, Norwegian)
This society is occupied with growing orchids. A list and short description of all 36 Norwegian native orchids and over 150 images of these are also on the site.


>>  !!! Polskie Storczykie   by J. Kucharzyk  (Polish)
Orchids of Poland, including many photos of a lot of species, lists of orchids of Poland, Pieniny National Park and the Western Beskids.
>>  Orchids in the National Park Biebrza   by C. Werpachowski   (English)
A list of 18 orchids growing in this park, with images.
>>  Plants list   by Jagiellonian University Cracov   (English)
A list of protected plants in Poland, among which orchids and their distribution and locations. Detailed information. Click on Chronopol to enter the site.


Orquideas Ibericas  by S. Galan Cela, R. Gamarra, S. Alvarez Diaz  (Spanish)
Neatly designed site with description, images and basic but clear distribution maps of the orchids of Spain and Portugal.

Orquídeas silvestres de la Península Ibérica   by C. Gelpi   (Spanish)
Collection of photos of the orchids of the Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal).


Slovenske orchideje   by D. Branko   (Slovenian, partially in English)
Orchids in Slovenia, including over 70 colourfull photographs.


>>  Antonio Vazquez on-line - Orquidéas   by A. Vasquez   (Spanish)
Complete list of all Spanish orchids and colourfull photographs of 60 of these species.

Orquideas Ibericas  by S. Galan Cela, R. Gamarra, S. Alvarez Diaz  (Spanish)
Neatly designed site with description, images and basic but clear distribution maps of the orchids of Spain and Portugal.

Orquídeas silvestres de la Península Ibérica   by C. Gelpi   (Spanish)
Collection of photos of the orchids of the Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal).


Svenska Orchidesallskapet   (Swedish)
The Swedish orchids society. Under "Svenska arter" a list of the about 50 Swedish orchids, including images of most of them.

Bildbanken pa Öland - Orkidéer   (Swedish)
Impression of orchids in Öland in about 40 photographs. Click "Orkidéer".
Sveriges bofasta orkidéer   by E. Elgebrant   (Swedish)
Images and description of the about 50 orchids from Sweden.

>>  !!! Bilder ur Nordens Flora   by Project Runeburg   (Swedish)
A list of plants growing in the Nordic (Laponian) region with a description and old colour plates by C. Lindman of each species. Number 399 - 419 are orchids.
>>  Orchid list   by A. Anderberg   (Swedish)
A list of all 44 Swedish orchids, with images and a description.
>>  Flora of Oland   by Flyway   (English)
Flora of the Oland region with 4 nice orchid images.


>>  Alpenblumen-Lexicon   by P. Heinzer   (German)
Short list of Swiss Alpine plants among which three orchids, with images

>>  Senioren-Homepage   by H. Rüger   (English)
30 images of 23 Swiss orchid species, showing the plant or inflorescence


>>  Orchid Icecream   by E. Hansen   (English)
In Turkey orchids are collected on large scale, which is a serious threat to many species. The nectar (or "salep" in Turkish) from orchid bulbs is used for making ice creams. Interesting story about this subject.

United Kingdom

>>  !!! Hardy Orchid Society   (English)
Society with members interested in studying photographing and cultivating orchids. Nice image collection of variable quality, beautiful images from a photo competition! Comments on various orchid books etcetera…
>>  British Orchid Genera   by ANOS   (English)
Description of the orchid genera presented in Great-Britain, including below average images.

Images - galleries

>>  Coté Nature   by P. Dubois   (French)
Beautiful collection of about 200 photographs of various European orchids.
>>  Orchidsworld   by F. Rion   (French)
Collection of low quality photographs of well varried European orchids.
European Orchids   by J. Oud   (English)
A hundred below average photographs of the same number of orchids.
Orchidées sauvages d'Europe   by J.P. Contesse   (French)
Quality images of orchids photographed in Switzerland, Greece, Spain and France.

>>  Naturfotos - Flora Blumen Orchideen Europaische   (German)

77 images of orchids from all over Europe, among nice ones with orchids in their habitat.
Famille des Orchidacees   by J. Ingles   (French)
Collection of photographs of about 75 orchid species, mainly found in France.

Rare Plants - Orchid gallery   by P.J. Christian   (English)
70 images of various European orchids.

>>   by T. Stegmann  (English, German)
52 images of 32 different European orchids on a wonderfull website with thousands of species...

>>  Plant Image Gallery   by T. Schoepke   (English)
42 below average quality images of 17 native European orchids (and some tropicals). Click on Orchidaceae in the left column for the list.
>>  Familie: Orchidaceae   by G. Zotz   (German)
26 images of 15 orchids (mainly occurring in Germany) and a description of the genus Orchidaceae.
>>  Wild Flowers in Camera   by Nigel Kendal   (English)
23 images of various European orchids (in the Special interest pages-section).
Anita & Mike   (English)
14 rather dark photographs of European orchids (mainly inflorescences).

>>  Perigord tendence nature…   by D. Cauchoix   (French)
12 images of various orchids from Perigord, France.
>>  Ophrys Gallery   by G. Norman   (English)
12 images of Ophrys taken in Sweden, Spain and the Greek island Crete.
>>  Orchidholidays - Orchid plants   by Pandion-D   (English)
10 average quality images of various Bulgarian orchids.
>>  Vilde Orkideer   by M. Levinsen   (Danish)
8 images of various Danish orchids.

>>  Jonathan Tyler Wildlife Illustrator   by J. Tyler   (English)
14 beautiful prints of various European orchids (click on Orchids and Previous commissions).


>>  International Orchid Workshop 2001   by D. Whigham, J. Willems & P. Kindlmann   (English)
Underlying mechanisms of trends and fluctuations in terrestrial orchid populations
>>  Population biology and ecology of the European terrestrial orchids   by L. Vanhecke   (English)
Population research aimed at Dactylorhiza with example of Dactylorhiza praetermissa.
>>  Comparision of Anacamptis pyramidalis in Denmark, Sweden & France   by N.M. Winter   (English)
>>  In vitro regeneration of endangered Alpine flowers   by R. Kremen et. al.   (German)
Research with Dactylorhiza maculata and Listera ovata.
Pseudocopulation in Ophrys species   by F. Schiestl   (English)
Research on pseudocopulation, the most important manner of regeneration in Ophrys, with a few interesting photographs.

Specialized subjects

>>  Orchids and Broomrapes   by C. Kreutz   (English, German, French, Dutch, partially in Turkish, Greek)
Reviews of ten great books on orchids occuring in the Netherlands, in Germany, in Turkey, on Rhodes and Karpathos (Greece) and on Ophrys-species. Excellent images from the author, lists of orchids and examples of distribution maps etc... Do not skip the intro, it is entertaining!
>>  Gerfried Deutsch / Uni Graz   by G. Deutsch   (English)
Images of Nigritella species and Nigritella hybrids and research concerning Nigritella, mycorrizal fungi and propagation of terrestrial orchids.
>>  Orchideeninformationen   by W. Bongers   (German)
Varied orchid news, research, images etcetera

Under 100% construction

>>  Het Orchideeengevoel van Sisko Remedius & friends


>>  Native Orchids   (English)
Discussion forum about native terrestrial orchids, includes orchids of Northern America and Europe.

Non-European orchid websites

>>  The Orchid Mall   by C. Whitlow   (English)
A great collection of links mainly to growing exotic orchids as well as some on native orchids.
>>  Orchidlady   by L. Fortner   (English)
Very nice designed website on orchids in general and on growing exotic orchids.
>>   (Dutch)
Dutch portal to mainly orchid growing and orchid-business sites.
>>   (Dutch)

Dutch portal to mainly orchid growing and orchid-business sites.
>>  Australasian Native Orchid Association   (English)
All about orchids in the continents Australia and Asia.
>>  Highlights of Orchid History   by R. Rig   (English)
Timeline with dates of discovery and description of orchid species.



Should you miss a link in this page, please let me know by e-mail!

(c) Frank Verhart - Last update: 30 may 2007

Frank's links I Orchid links I Dutch nature links I Polish nature links